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Gran Quivira - Salinas Pueblos History
Text from U.S National Park Service Salinas Pueblos Monument Guide - GPO: 1992-312-248/40146 Reprint 1992
   Las Humanas, the largest of the Salinas pueblos (includes Abó and Quarai), was an important trade center for many years before and after the Spanish entrada. the people resisted the newcomers at first, but they reconciled themselves to the Spanish presence, and borrowed freely from them, as they had from other cultures. The pueblo's black-on-white pottery took on new forms reflecting European styles. Other artifacts from the site recall the Spanish presence: Chinese porcelain, metal tools, and evidence of cattle, goats, sheep, horses and pigs. Documents of the 1600s tell of strife between missionaries and encomenderos, who complained that the friars kept the Indians so busy studying Christianity and building churches that the encomenderos could neither use Indian labor nor collect their tributes. Burned and filled kivas attest to the friars' determination to exterminate the old religion. Hurriedly altered above-ground rooms converted to kivas attest to the Pueblo priests' response. A second church was begun around 1659, but was never completed, partly because Apache raids had begun. In 1672, further weakened by drought and famine, the inhabitants (only 500 bu that time) abandoned the pueblo.